Day Trader
Very active stock trader who holds positions for a very short time and makes several trades each day. Day traders are individuals who are trying to make a career out of buying and selling stocks very quickly, often making dozens of trades in a single day and generally closing all positions at the end of each day. Day trading can be costly, since the commissions and the bid/ask spread add up when there are so many transactions.

The amount by which a bond’s par exceeds its market price.
The amount by which the Net Asset Value per share of a closed-end fund’s holdings exceeds its market price.
Anything selling below its normal price. opposite of premium.
In the case of a convertible security, the difference between the gross proceeds received on sale and the convertible’s price. This difference occurs whenever the market expects that the convertible security will be redeemed before the next coupon date, and so investors will receive accrued interest.

Dollar Drain
A situation in which a country’s imports from the U.S. exceed their exports to the U.S., which results in a reduction in their dollar reserves. The idea can also be applied to currencies of other countries.

Dollar-Weighted Rate of Return
The rate of return that would make the present value of future cash flows plus the final market value of an investment or business opportunity equal the current market price of the investment or opportunity; in other words, the rate of return at which the net present value of the project is zero. If the internal rate of return exceeds the cost of financing the project, then the project is viable. The internal rate of return is also useful in ranking competing investment projects (the higher the internal rate of return, the better the project is), but there are some limitations with this technique. First, if cash flows change from negative or positive, or vice versa, a unique internal rate of return cannot be calculated, Second, in the case that competing projects are being considered, the internal rate of return criteria sometimes gives a different ranking than the net present value criteria. Thus, net present value is usually preferred over internal rate of return, since net present value is a specific number and is usually easier to calculate. also called dollar-weighted rate of return.

Double Taxation
Taxation of the same earnings at two levels. One common example is taxation of earnings at the corporate level and then again at the shareholder dividend level. Another example is taxation of foreign investments in the country of origin and then again upon repatriation, although many countries have signed agreements to prevent this latter type of double taxation.

Dutch Disease
The deindustrialization of a nation’s economy that occurs when the discovery of a natural resource raises the value of that nation’s currency, making manufactured goods less competitive with other nations, increasing imports and decreasing exports. The term originated in Holland after the discovery of North Sea gas.